Methodologies Employed to Cool Photovoltaic Modules for Enhancing Efficiency: A Review
Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences,
2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 49-62
AbstractPhotovoltaic cells are one of the renewable energy sources that have been employed to produce electrical energy from solar radiation falling on them, but not all incident radiate will produce electrical energy, part of those radiate cause the panel temperature to rise, reducing its efficiency and its operational life, unless an attempt is made to employ one of the traditional cooling methods or innovating other methods to cooling it to reduce this effect, which it represented in the active and passive cooling method. In fact, it is difficult to compare the active method with the passive method, as each method has its Advantages and disadvantages that may suit one region without another. But in general, there are basic factors through which at least a comparison between the two methods can be made. Relatively the passive method is less expensive, in addition to no need for additional parts such as pumps and controllers, there is no energy consumption because it does not require power. But it is less effective and efficient than the active method, while the active method has the ability to disperse the heat higher than the passive method. However, it necessitates the use of electricity and is frequently costlier than the passive strategy. In this review, the most common active and passive cases were reviewed, and the pros and cons of each case are summarized in discussion due to the difficulty to list them. The review recommends that future studies should focus on active water cooling and heat-sink, both of which are viable cooling strategies.
 M. H. Ahmadi et al., “Solar power technology for electricity generation: A critical review,” Energy Sci. Eng., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 340–361, 2018, doi: 10.1002/ese3.239.
 J. Hu, W. Chen, D. Yang, B. Zhao, H. Song, and B. Ge, “Energy performance of ETFE cushion roof integrated photovoltaic/thermal system on hot and cold days,” Appl. Energy, vol. 173, pp. 40–51, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.111.
 Y. Wang, S. Zhou, and H. Huo, “Cost and CO2 reductions of solar photovoltaic power generation in China: Perspectives for 2020,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 39, no. 2014, pp. 370–380, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.027.
 A. Shukla, K. Kant, A. Sharma, and P. H. Biwole, “Cooling methodologies of photovoltaic module for enhancing electrical efficiency: A review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 160, no. October 2016, pp. 275–286, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.10.047.
 M. Ghorab, E. Entchev, and L. Yang, “Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water system (a case study),” Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 201–212, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.033.
 A. E. Kabeel and E. M. S. El-Said, “A hybrid solar desalination system of air humidification, dehumidification and water flashing evaporation: Part II. Experimental investigation,” Desalination, vol. 341, no. 1, pp. 50–60, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.02.035.
 W. Moomaw et al., “Renewable energy and climate change,” in Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN), IPCC, 2011, pp. 161–208.
 A. Maleki, A. Haghighi, M. El Haj Assad, I. Mahariq, and M. Alhuyi Nazari, “A review on the approaches employed for cooling PV cells,” Sol. Energy, vol. 209, no. June, pp. 170–185, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2020.08.083.
 P. Cells and G. B. Editor, “Performance of Solar Energy Converters: Thermal Collectors and Photovoltaic Cells,” Perform. Sol. Energy Convert. Therm. Collect. Photovolt. Cells, p. 1981, 1983, doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-9813-4.
 R. M. da Silva and J. L. M. Fernandes, “Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab,” Sol. Energy, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1985–1996, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2010.10.004.
  H. G. Teo, P. S. Lee, and M. N. A. Hawlader, “An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules,” Appl. Energy, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 309–315, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.017.
  E. Skoplaki and J. A. Palyvos, “On the temperature dependence of photovoltaic module electrical performance: A review of efficiency/power correlations,” Sol. Energy, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 614–624, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2008.10.008.
  I. H. Altas and A. M. Sharaf, “A fuzzy logic power tracking controller for a photovoltaic energy conversion scheme,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 227–238, 1992, doi: 10.1016/0378-7796(92)90022-S.
  S. Kurtz, “Opportunities for development of a mature concentrating photovoltaic power industry,” 2009 Int. Conf. Compd. Semicond. Manuf. Technol. CS MANTECH 2009, no. July, 2009.
  S. Chatterjee and G. Tamizhmani, “BAPV arrays: Side-by-side comparison with and without fan cooling,” Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf., pp. 537–542, 2012, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317672.
 M. Simon, “On the evaluation of spectral effects on photovoltaic modules performance parameters and hotspots in solar cells,” Univ. Fort Hare, 2009.
 S. M. Salih, O. I. Abd, and K. W. Abid, “Performance enhancement of PV array based on water spraying technique,” Int. J. Sustain. Green Energy, no. February, 2015, doi: doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.s.2015040301.12.
 W. Saleh, A. Jadallah, and A. Shuraiji, “A-Review for the Cooling Techniques of PV/T Solar Air Collectors,” Eng. Technol. J., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 129–136, 2022, doi: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2139.
 R. Mazón-Hernández, J. R. García-Cascales, F. Vera-García, A. S. Káiser, and B. Zamora, “Improving the electrical parameters of a photovoltaic panel by means of an induced or forced air stream,” Int. J. Photoenergy, vol. 2013, 2013.
 H. M. Maghrabie, A. S. A. Mohamed, M. S. Ahmed, H. M. Maghrabie, and M. S. Ahmed, “Improving Performance of Photovoltaic Cells via Active Air Cooling System,” Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Energy Eng., pp. 1–5, 2017.
 P. Dwivedi, K. Sudhakar, A. Soni, E. Solomin, and I. Kirpichnikova, “Advanced cooling techniques of P.V. modules: A state of art,” Case Stud. Therm. Eng., vol. 21, no. December 2019, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.csite.2020.100674.
 R. Daghigh, M. H. Ruslan, and K. Sopian, “Advances in liquid based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4156–4170, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.028.
 H. Bahaidarah, A. Subhan, P. Gandhidasan, and S. Rehman, “Performance evaluation of a PV (photovoltaic) module by back surface water cooling for hot climatic conditions,” Energy, vol. 59, pp. 445–453, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2013.07.050.
 Y. Khanjari, F. Pourfayaz, and A. B. Kasaeian, “Numerical investigation on using of nanofluid in a water-cooled photovoltaic thermal system,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 122, pp. 263–278, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.05.083.
  S. Y. Wu, Q. L. Zhang, L. Xiao, and F. H. Guo, “A heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid system and its performance evaluation,” Energy Build., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 3558–3567, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.017.
  S. Nižetić, D. Čoko, A. Yadav, and F. Grubišić-Čabo, “Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 108, pp. 287–296, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.079.
 K. A. Moharram, M. S. Abd-Elhady, H. A. Kandil, and H. El-Sherif, “Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling,” Ain Shams Eng. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 869–877, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.asej.2013.03.005.
 M. Al-Housani, Y. Bicer, and M. Koç, “Experimental investigations on PV cleaning of large-scale solar power plants in desert climates: Comparison of cleaning techniques for drone retrofitting,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 185, no. January, pp. 800–815, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.058.
 A. Elnozahy, A. K. A. Rahman, A. H. H. Ali, M. Abdel-Salam, and S. Ookawara, “Performance of a PV module integrated with standalone building in hot arid areas as enhanced by surface cooling and cleaning,” Energy Build., vol. 88, pp. 100–109, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.12.012.
 A. K. Abbas, K. W. Abid, O. I. Abd, Y. Al Mashhadany, and A. H. Jasim, “25383 - High Performance of Solar Panel Based on New Cooling and Cleaning Technique,” vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 803–814, 2021, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v24.i2.pp803-814.
 J. Siecker, K. Kusakana, and B. P. Numbi, “A review of solar photovoltaic systems cooling technologies,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 79, no. May 2018, pp. 192–203, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.053.
 A. Sahay, V. K. Sethi, A. C. Tiwari, and M. Pandey, “A review of solar photovoltaic panel cooling systems with special reference to Ground coupled central panel cooling system (GC-CPCS),” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 42, pp. 306–312, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.009.
 H. Moshfegh, M. Eslami, and A. Hosseini, “Thermoelectric cooling of a photovoltaic panel,” Green Energy Technol., pp. 625–634, 2018, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-89845-2_44.
 H. Najafi and K. A. Woodbury, “Optimization of a cooling system based on Peltier effect for photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy, vol. 91, pp. 152–160, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.01.026.
 M. D. S. Borkar, D. S. V. Prayagi, and M. J. Gotmare, “Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Panel Using Thermoelectric Cooling,” Int. J. Eng. Res., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 536–539, 2014, doi: 10.17950/ijer/v3s9/904.
 M. Benghanem, A. A. Al-Mashraqi, and K. O. Daffallah, “Performance of solar cells using thermoelectric module in hot sites,” Renew. Energy, vol. 89, pp. 51–59, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.12.011.
 Z. Farhana, Y. M. Irwan, R. M. N. Azimmi, A. R. N. Razliana, and N. Gomesh, “Experimental investigation of photovoltaic modules cooling system,” 2012 IEEE Symp. Comput. Informatics, Isc. 2012, pp. 165–169, 2012, doi: 10.1109/ISCI.2012.6222687.
 C. G. Popovici, S. V. Hudişteanu, T. D. Mateescu, and N. C. Cherecheş, “Efficiency Improvement of Photovoltaic Panels by Using Air Cooled Heat Sinks,” Energy Procedia, vol. 85, no. November 2015, pp. 425–432, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.12.223.
 S. A. Zubeer, H. A. Mohammed, and M. Ilkan, “A review techniques of photovoltaic cells cooling,” vol. 00205, 2017, doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20172200205.
 R. Kumar, V. Deshmukh, and R. S. Bharj, “Performance enhancement of photovoltaic modules by nanofluid cooling: A comprehensive review,” Int. J. Energy Res., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 6149–6169, 2020, doi: 10.1002/er.5285.
 X. Tang, Z. Quan, and Y. Zhao, “Experimental investigation of solar panel cooling by a novel micro heat pipe array,” Energy Power Eng, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 171–174, 2010.
 [N. Gilmore, V. Timchenko, and C. Menictas, “Microchannel cooling of concentrator photovoltaics: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 90, no. April, pp. 1041–1059, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.010.
 M. M. Islam, A. K. Pandey, M. Hasanuzzaman, and N. A. Rahim, “Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 126, pp. 177–204, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.075.
 C. Y. Zhao and G. H. Zhang, “Review on microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs): Fabrication, characterization and applications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 3813–3832, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.019.
 A. Mallow, O. Abdelaziz, and S. Graham, “Thermal charging study of compressed expanded natural graphite/phase change material composites,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 109, pp. 495–504, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.08.030.
 W. G. Anderson, P. M. Dussinger, D. B. Sarraf, and S. Tamanna, “Heat pipe cooling of concentrating photovoltaic cells,” Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf., no. July, pp. 28–30, 2008, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2008.4922577.
 A. Akbarzadeh and T. Wadowski, “Heat pipe-based cooling systems for photovoltaic cells under concentrated solar radiation,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 1996, doi: 10.1016/1359-4311(95)00012-3.
 H. M. S. Bahaidarah, A. A. B. Baloch, and P. Gandhidasan, “Uniform cooling of photovoltaic panels: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 57, pp. 1520–1544, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.064.
 X. Kang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, Y. Cui, X. Shi, and Y. Sun, “Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 128, pp. 95–103, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.09.073.
 I. H. Altas and A. M. Sharaf, “A novel fuzzy logic controller for maximum power extraction from a pv array driving a three-phase induction motor,” in Proceedings of MELECON’94. Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, 1994, pp. 853–856.
 X. Han, Y. Wang, and L. Zhu, “The performance and long-term stability of silicon concentrator solar cells immersed in dielectric liquids,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 66, pp. 189–198, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2012.10.009.
 M. Chandrasekar and T. Senthilkumar, “Experimental demonstration of enhanced solar energy utilization in flat PV (photovoltaic) modules cooled by heat spreaders in conjunction with cotton wick structures,” Energy, vol. 90, pp. 1401–1410, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.06.074.
 M. Chandrasekar, S. Suresh, T. Senthilkumar, and M. Ganesh Karthikeyan, “Passive cooling of standalone flat PV module with cotton wick structures,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 71, pp. 43–50, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.03.012.
 S. Krauter, “Increased electrical yield via water flow over the front of photovoltaic panels,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 82, no. 1–2, pp. 131–137, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2004.01.011.
 A. Kane, V. Verma, and B. Singh, “Optimization of thermoelectric cooling technology for an active cooling of photovoltaic panel,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 75, pp. 1295–1305, 2017.
 M. Firoozzadeh, A. H. Shiravi, and M. Shafiee, “An Experimental Study on Cooling the Photovoltaic Modules by Fins to Improve Power Generation: Economic Assessment,” Iran. J. Energy Environ., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 80–84, 2019, doi: 10.5829/ijee.2019.10.02.02.
 Z. Arifin, D. D. D. P. Tjahjana, S. Hadi, R. A. Rachmanto, G. Setyohandoko, and B. Sutanto, “Numerical and experimental investigation of air cooling for photovoltaic panels using aluminum heat sinks,” Int. J. Photoenergy, vol. 2020, 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/1574274.
 A. Hasan, S. J. McCormack, M. J. Huang, and B. Norton, “Energy and cost saving of a photovoltaic-phase change materials (PV-PCM) System through temperature regulation and performance enhancement of photovoltaics,” Energies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1318–1331, 2014, doi: 10.3390/en7031318.
 X. Yang, L. Sun, Y. Yuan, X. Zhao, and X. Cao, “Experimental investigation on performance comparison of PV/T-PCM system and PV/T system,” Renew. Energy, vol. 119, pp. 152–159, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.11.094.
 L. Habeeb, D. Ghanim, L. J. Habeeb, D. Ghanim Mutasher, F. A. Muslim, and A. Ali, “Cooling Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Panel by Using Heat Pipe at Baghdad Climate,” Int. J. Mech. Mechatronics Eng. IJMME-IJENS, vol. 17, no. February, p. 6, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329196967
 A. H. Alami, “Effects of evaporative cooling on efficiency of photovoltaic modules,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 77, pp. 668–679, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.10.019.
 M. Lucas, F. J. Aguilar, J. Ruiz, C. G. Cutillas, A. S. Kaiser, and P. G. Vicente, “Photovoltaic Evaporative Chimney as a new alternative to enhance solar cooling,” Renew. Energy, vol. 111, pp. 26–37, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.03.087.
 S. Mehrotra, P. Rawat, M. Debbarma, and K. Sudhakar, “Performance of a solar panel with water immersion cooling technique,” Int. J. Sci. Environ. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1161–1172, 2014.
- Article View: 36
- PDF Download: 40