Issue 3

Integration Environmental Aspects onto Customer Requirement to Develop Green Quality Function Deployment

Maryam Khalid Abdul Wahid; Dr. Lamyaa Mohammad Dawood

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 149-161
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171263

The extensive global competition between companies and the development of new industrial technologies have greatly contributed to the current competitive conditions Like industrial companies, customers demand high quality products, low prices and better performance. This fierce competition has led to concerns about improved product design. This development is based on GQFD. Model of this developed Water pump is employed by CAD solid model (version 7). In order to achieve competition and high quality and high performance in the Iraqi market. GQFD demonstrates the balance between product development and environmental protection. Used a water pump for a home air cooler as a case study. Data is collected and distributed using personal interview methods and questionnaire forms to indicate customer requirements. The data is then analyzed using Pareto chart and AHP to prioritize customer needs. These priorities are then placed in house of quality and matrix of relationships between customer requirements and technical characteristics is established. The product has been developed from electrical to mechanical, in addition to using accumulated, stored and recycled materials; it also saves 20% of energy, thereby combining energy reduction with the use of damaged materials and their re-entry into work. As a result, the cost of pump manufacturing will decrease

The Integration Between the Structural System and the Envelope System in Earthquake Resistance Design

Ali Nur el-deen Azeez; Prof. Dr. Ali Mohsen Jaafer AL-Khafaji

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 162-176
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171264

Earthquakes are one of the most serious natural disasters affecting the stability and the durability of buildings, threatening the life of its occupants. These buildings should be withstanding earth-quakes by both architectural and structural engineers. The Integration between structural and envelope system is negatively affected due to; the lack of architectural knowledge in earthquake resistance, and the absence of cooperation between architectural and structural engineers in earthquake resistant design. In this research the lack in the nature of the integrative relationship between the structural and envelope system of earthquake-resistant buildings design is present-ed. Also, the relationship between these systems, their patterns, and levels in the building to resist earthquakes are highlighted. Where the concept of integration, patterns and levels are verified, using inductive methodology (descriptive, and analytical) through election, analyzing of two different case studies.major result show that the performance pattern is the most common type of three other integration patterns.Also the envelope ,structural system response achieves an equal degree of response as both of them are integrated with each other without revoking one the role of other or affecting the optimal seismic resistance of buildings, and conclusion are presented further.

Numerical Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Water Distribution in Stratified Soil Under Subsurface Trickle

Ayad K. Mohammed; Dr. Basim Sh. Abed

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171265

The studying of the distribution of wetting patterns in soils having a stratified profile is of great importance due to the presence of this type of profile in abundance in agricultural lands, including greenhouses. Therefore, there was a need to develop a numerical program that predicts the dimensions of the wet area of the subsurface drip irrigation system under different operating conditions for purpose design and manage these systems properly to avoid water losses resulting from evaporation or deep penetration. The present study aims to develop a two-dimension model simulates the wetting pattern in stratified soils using (HYDRUS-2D) software and study the effect of soil hydraulic properties and different operating conditions on the progress of the wetness pattern and the interference pattern between two wetting fronts. Laboratory experiments were carried out for the system of subsurface drip irrigation in stratified soils that consisted of three layers (silty clay loam soil, loamy sand soil, and sand soil) arranged from bottom to up. Three different emitter flow rates 0.5, 1, and 2 l/h were tested, as well as three different initial moisture contents for each soil layer were considered. The interference pattern between two wetting fronts of two emitters with different spacing between emitters 30, 40, and 50 cm was studied. A numerical model was developed to guess the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the wetting zone for the single emitter and the pattern of interference between the two wetting fronts of two emitters. The predicted values obtained from the numerical model were compared with those obtained from laboratory experiments. Statistical analysis of the obtained data showed that the developed numerical model has a good ability to guess the dimensions of the wet pattern of the single and the two emitters and there were good agreements between the predicted and the experiments results and minimum values of RMSE ranged between 0.45 and 2.61 were achieved.

The use of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of river water quality

Ammar Salman Dawood; Maha Atta Faroon Faroon; Yasameen Tahseen Yousif

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 193-203
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171266

This study assessed the temporal and spatial water quality variability to reveal the characteristics of the Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq. A total of 14 water quality parameters (water tempera-ture (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Alkanets (Alk), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity (Tur), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), total suspended solids (TSS), sodium (Na), and potassium (k)) were analyzed Use of multivariate sta-tistical methods in a total of three stations for the period 2016-2017. In this study was use a sta-tistical approach to determine the water quality using the Pearson Correlation Index (PCI), Prin-cipal component analysis (PCA), and Factor Analysis (FA) were used to analyze the data. Main water pollutant sources were wastewater from agricultural drainage and industrial wastewater. Significant relationships recorded between the investigated parameters based on the results of PCI, at the 0.01 and 0.05 significance levels. Per the FA results, 77.1 % of the total variance ex-plained by two factors..

The effect of a controlled cooling system on the solar array of DC air conditioner

Hashim Abed Hussein; Ali Hussein Numan; krar Mohammed. kuder

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 204-211
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171267

The present research is devoted to solve the problem of high energy consumption by air conditioners in summer. In order to eliminate domestic electricity for cool-ing purposes and rely directly on solar energy isolated from the grid connection and increases the performance of the solar panel by using front water spray cool-ing system for the panel, and by using Adruino as controller to control the cooling system. The experimental system setup arranged in Iraq at Al-taje site during the summer season at a room. The proposed system consists of an array of photovolta-ic, battery used to store power, PWM charge controller, and DC air cooler, Adruino. During the examination of the system, The enhancement of the solar pan-el has a positive effect on long-term batteries and improves the battery life by which the charge and discharge when combined with a direct photovoltaic air conditioning system without refrigeration. Excess power generated from the PV panels is storage in the batteries, which make the system is the most familiar with Iraq's summer conditions.

Shear Strength of Directly and Indirectly Loaded Rectangular Self -Compacted Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Containing Recycled Concrete as Coarse Aggregate

Thamer Hussein Amer Alhussein; Asst. Prof. Dr. Jamal Abdul Samad Khudhair

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 212-220
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171268

Deep beams with rectangular cross-sections are widely used in concrete structures. In the presentstudy, reinforced concrete rectangular deep beams cast with self-compacted concrete (SCC)which contains recycled concrete as coarse aggregate (RCA) were tested under directly and indirectlyloading conditions. In the experimental work, fifteen deep beams were investigated, thefirst parameter considered in this study was the shear span to effective depth (a/d) ratio. Theother variable is the replacement ratio by which the normal coarse aggregate is replaced by RCA.The beams were cast without the use of shear reinforcement. During the tests, the response ofthe beams including the cracking load, the ultimate load, concrete strain, and mid-span deflectionwere recorded. Test results indicate that the presence of RCA caused a reduction in the values ofcracking and ultimate loads. For instance, the cracking load was reduced by 9%, 23%, and 50%and the ultimate load was reduced by 2%, 23%, and 25% as RCA replacement increased by 25%,50%, and 75% respectively for a/d ratio equals 1.0. Further, by increasing the a/d ratio, the ultimateload was decreased due to the lower contribution of arch action shear transfer in the beamwith a higher (a/d) ratio.

Evaluation the effect of some traffic characteristics on the safety performance of intersections

Akram S. Mahmoud; Khalid Hardan Mhana Alwani; Mohammed H. Mhana

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 221-227
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171270

Traffic accidents and traffic delay have a negative impact on the mobility traffic flow due to their huge costs on the transport system. Thus one of the main primary aims for transport policy makers are reducing the negative ef-fect of traffic accidents and traffic delay on the road network. In this study, fixed and random parameters Tobit models have been developed to model the accident rates from 20 intersections in Al-Karakh district in Baghdad City, Iraq. The safety significant of logarithm of annual average daily traffic, the percentage of heavy vehicles and the delay time for both major and minor directions for each intersection on the accident rates were evaluated. The main finding of this study shows that delay has an important effect on traffic accident rates of intersections. Regarding to the effect of other factors on traf-fic accident rates, the result of the model shows that the logarithm of annual average daily flow, the percentage of heavy vehicles for both major and minor directions of the intersection are positively associated with more accident rates.

The impact of Salutogenic factors on the process of patient’s recovery Case study; Erbil city hospitals

Shivan Sarbast Essa; Adeeb Nuri Ahmed Jabbari

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 228-251
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171273

The quality of the built environment could highly impact our state of wellbeing, by affecting ourstress and exposure within the building environment. Scientific studies linked stress todepression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiac disease. Hospitals considered as stressful places due totheir inconvenient experiences. The theory of Salutogenic design aims to reduce stress throughthe implementation of an interdisciplinary design study to enhance the sense of coherence (SOC)for any individual to be able to adapt himself to the overall life challenges. Salutogenic definesseveral factors which can affect an individual’s state of well-being in any space. This researchlimited on two of these design factors (daylight, colour) within three selected hospital through acritical methodology using a sample questionnaire of 15 questions headed to 90 from all threehospitals. the second part of the methodology using a Light-meter device for calculating theamount of Lux in actual hospital conditions, the third part of research methodology is asimulation program (Ecotect) to have an adequate daylight calculation in the wards of all threehospitals as well as the lighting distribution with (daylight factor) to evaluate the efficiency ofwards in Erbil city. The last part of the study is by a field investigation by the researcher for theimplementation of Salutogenic Colours. through a critical methodology approach.The researchresults shows that wards of three hospitals has a poor natural daylight to penetrate the building,and hospitals depends mainly on artificial light which causes uncomfortability and inconsitnecyin treatment process. Patients prefrences are twords new colours such as turquoise, palepink,and blue rather than the tradtional colours used in Erbil governmental hospitals. using lightmeter as assessment tool to compare between the Ecotec Lux measurement and the actualcondition of lighting in hospital. The evaluation of three Wards within hospitals shows clearly theun sufficiency of natural lighting which leads to needing of artificial daylight. And might delay theprocess of recovery. Ecotect calculates the most suitable design condition in any city and findsother suitable orientations for buildings.

New Quality Metric for Compresed Images

Dhafer R. Zaghar; Maath Jasem Mahammad; Fatimah S. Abdulsattar

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 252-259
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171274

The field of image processing has several applications in our daily life. The image quality can be affected by a wide variety of deformations during image acquisition, transmission, compression, etc. Image compression is one of the applications where the quality of the image plays an im-portant role since it can be used to evaluate the performance of various image compression tech-niques. Many image quality assessment metrics have been proposed. This paper proposes a new metric to assess the quality of compressed images. The principle idea of this metric is to estimate the amount of lost information during image compression process using three components: error magnitude, error location and error distribution. We denote this metric as MLD, which combines the objective assessment (error magnitude) and the subjective assessment (error location and error distribution). First, the metric is used to estimate the quality of compressed images using the JPEG algorithm as this is a standard lossy image compression technique. Then, the metric is used to estimate the quality of compressed images using other compression techniques. The results illustrate that the proposed quality metric is correlated with the subjective assessment better than other well-known objective quality metrics such as SSIM, MSE and PSNR. Moreover, using the proposed metric the JPEG2000 algorithm produces better quality results as compared to the JPEG algorithm especially for higher compression ratios.