Volume 13, Issue 1, Summer 2022, Page 1-107

Research Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Optimum Angle for the Hybrid PV/T Collector

Zuhair D. Mohammed; Saad M. Jalil

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175875

In this article, an experimental study of the single-pass hybrid (PV/T) collector is conducted in the climatic conditions of Fallujah city, where the experimental results are compared with a previous research to validate the results. The effect of changing the angle of inclination of the hybrid collector (PV/T) and its effect on the electrical power in the range (20°-50°) is studied. The optimum angle of the collector is found to be 30°, which gives a maximum electrical power of 58.8 W at average solar radiation of 734.35 W/m2. In another experimental study with different air flow rates ranged from 0.04 kg/s to 0163 kg/s, where it is found that the maximum electrical power of 57.66 W at an air flow rate of 0.135 kg/s, while the maximum thermal efficiency reaches 33.53% at an air flow of 0.163 kg/s at average solar radiation of 786 W/m2.

Strengthening Reinforced Beams Subjected to Pure Torsion by Near Surface Mounted Rebars

Mashael A. Alrawi; Mohammad N. Mahmood

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175876

This paper investigates the possibility of strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams under pure torsion loadings. The torsional behaviour of strengthened RC beams with near-surface mounted steel and CFRP bars was investigated. The verification with the experimental work was performed to ensure the validity and accuracy which revealed a good agreement through the torque-rotation relationship, ultimate torque, and rotation, and crack pattern. This numerical study included testing of thirteen specimens (one of them was control beams while the remaining 12 were strengthened beams) with several parameters such as mounting spacing and configuration. The analytical results revealed that the addition of NSM rebar redistributed the internal stresses and enhanced the ultimate torsional strength, torque-rotation capacity, ductility, and energy absorption of the concrete beams.  Most of the strengthened beams revealed the appearance of the cracks at a phase less than the reference beam by an average of (9%).  Concerning the NSM strengthening, the CFRP bars provided a higher enhancement ratio when compared with the beams that strengthened with NSM steel rebar especially for the strengthening space equal to 130 mm and more. The ultimate torsional strength increased by (3.5%) and rotation decreased by (4%) approximately when the steel rebar was replaced by the carbon bar. The ductility and energy absorption of the analysed beams showed that the strengthening enhanced the ductility of the twisted beams. The ductility values varied according to the method of strengthening used, as it showed the highest values of the beam that was strengthened small spacing.

Properties of Sustainable Self- compacting Concrete Containing Treated and Modified Waste Plastic Fibers

Asmaa S. Hussien; Mahmoud K. Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175877

This study aims to improve different properties of sustainable self-compacting concrete SCC containing treated and modified polyethylene terephthalate PET fibers. For this purpose, gamma ray surface treatment and geometric modification were utilized for the used PET fibers. Concrete fresh properties include slump flow, T500mm, L-box and sieve segregation while mechanical properties include compressive, split tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and impact strength. Further, physical properties and related durability properties comprise dry density, ultrasonic pulse velocity, porosity and water absorption. The results obtained demonstrated that the treatment and the modification used for the PET fibers slightly reduced the fresh properties of produced sustainable SCC (slump flow, T500 mm, L-Box and sieve segregation). However, they were within the limits of the SCC specification as reported in EFNERC guidelines. Further, concrete hardened properties in terms of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, impact strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, decrease in the dry density, decrease in porosity and water absorption increased significantly.

Improving Productivity Employ Simulation Model: A Case Study of a Steel Pipe Manufacturing Company

Arz Y. Qwam Alden

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 35-45
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175878

Productivity improvement in the manufacturing industry of piping is a key challenge facing manufacturers in today's competitive markets. Improving productivity in the pipe manufacturing companies by implementing manufacturing principles that utilize simulation modeling was the purpose of this study. To improve productivity, an approach that focuses on the workstations and workforces process was suggested. The suggested approach’s goal was to increase productivity by providing customer prerequisites and leaving some products for other customers in the store. Based on the data has been gathered from the company of steel pipes, Bansal Ispat Tubes Private Limited in India, a simulation model was utilized to enhance its performance of operational. The investigation methodology consists of a simulation model, acceptable distribution, and data investigation. By simulating individual workstations and evaluating all relevant processes according to the data collected, the simulation model was built. Actual employment data were gathered from the line of manufacturing and supervisory workers, with observations carried out throughout the process of manufacturing. The used method involves videotaping of the process and interviewing workers using a video-camera. The superior continuous distributions were picked to fulfill a convenient statistical model. The results could be helps to ameliorate the manufacturing industry productivity. Furthermore, the outcomes could assist to solve the problems of scheduling in pipe manufacturing "simulating and modeling" which reveals active ways in enhancing pipe manufacturing productivity. Consequently, the findings might support well competition among companies.

Dam and Reservoir System Management based on Genetic Algorithms

Mohammed Lateef Ahmed

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 46-52
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175879

Indeed, there are many hydrology variables influence on the operating of dam and reservoir system. Thus, modelling of dam operation is a complicated issue due to the nonlinearity of such hydrological parameters. Hence, the identification of a modern model with a high capacity to cope with the operation of the dam is extremely important. The current research introduced good an optimization algorithm, namely Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find best operation rules. The main aim of the suggested algorithm is to minimize the difference between irrigation demand and water release value. The developed algorithm was applied to find operation rules for Timah Tasoh Dam, Malaysia. This research used significant evaluation indexes to examine the algorithms' performance. The results indicated that the GA method achieved low Vulnerability, high Resilience and Reliability. It has been demonstrated that the GA method will be a promising tool in dealing with the problem of dam operation.

Review Paper

Enhancing the effectiveness of the cooling system for automotive engine by employing different nanofluids: literature review

Israa Ali Abdulghafor

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175880

The cooling system of a car engine effects strongly the efficiency of the car engine so many studies were presented to enhance the cooling system of the car. The components of the cooling system are radiator, water pumps, fan, shutters, thermostats, expansion tanks/storage tanks, water pipes, water temperature gauges, etc. Among these components,  the radiator considers the primary key to enhancing the efficiency of the car engine. Many studies were achieved to enhance the efficiency of car radiators by using different nanofluids as a coolant are discussed in this literature review study. These previous studies investigated various kinds of nanofluids such as Al2O3, CuO, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO with different base fluids.  Nanofluid concentrations,  nanofluid temperature, and nanofluid flow rate were studied by previous studies eleven years ago.       

Research Paper

Identifying key factors affecting of the projects objectives in Baghdad Province by using experts interview technique

Halah waleed abd Al-jaleel

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175881

The performance of the construction industry is regarded as one of the most significant variables in the global economic development success of nations. As a result, it requires focusing on strengths to enhance them and weaknesses to address them. This study aims to identify the key factors affecting the objectives of construction projects. To achieve the study aim, previous records and documents of two completed projects were studied carefully to identify problems that occurred and the impact of these problems on the project objectives. After that, an experts' interview was conducted to identify the key factors affecting the purposes of the construction project. The results of this study identified (33) key factors affecting the achievement of the construction project objectives, where the factor "The financial allocation for the project" was the most important, while the factor "Bad a health and safety plan in the project" was the least important.

IHS Image Fusion Based on Gray Wolf Optimizer (GWO)

Sapan Jabar Faqe Ahmed; Dleen Mohammed Salih

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175882

Satellites may provide data with various spectral and spatial resolutions. The spatial resolution of panchromatic (PAN) images is higher, but the spectral resolution of multispectral (MS) images is greater. There is Satellite sensors limitation for capturing an image with high spatial and spectral resolution, due to the hardware design of the sensors. Whereas many remote sensing, as well as GIS applications, need high spatial and spectral resolution. Image fusion merges images of different spectral and spatial resolutions based on a certain algorithm. It can be used to overcome the sensor's limitation and play an important role in the extraction of information. The standard image fusion approaches lose spatial information or distort spectral characteristics. Optimizations of fusion rules can overcome and degrade the distortions as the fusion core is the image fusion rules. In this paper, the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) is used to find the optimal injection gain, as most distortions in image fusion are caused by the extraction and injection of spatial detail. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics were utilized to evaluate the quality of the merged image. The mentioned metrics that were used commonly for evaluation of image fusion results support the proposed algorithm for image fusion as the output image was qualitatively and quantitatively growth. In the future the proposed method can be updated by increasing the objective function dimensions to two or three for getting a best fused image.   

Review Paper

Prediction of First Ply Failure of Composite Pressure Vessels Under Internal Pressure: A review

Naseer Farhood; Abdullah Hamad Singal

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 76-84
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175883

Composite pressure vessels (i.e. types III and IV) are widely used for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, as storage cylinders to reduce the weight while maintaining high mechanical properties. These vessels can achieve 70-80% of weight saving, as compared to steel vessels (type I). So, prediction of first ply failure and burst pressure of these vessels is of great concern. Thus, this paper involved a review of literature regarding the first ply failure and burst pressure of composite pressure vessels (types III and IV). The review included the researches related to the simulation, mathematical modeling, and experimental analysis. The study focused on simulation-related research more than others due to the complexities of mathematical modeling of such problems in addition to the high cost of experimental tests. The results indicated that the stacking sequence of layers, vessel thickness and the type of selected composites were the main factors that mainly affect the vessel burst pressure performance. Accordingly, the optimization in the vessel structure (composite fabric architecture) parameters plays an important role in the performance of burst pressure. This in turn will lead to a high vessel durability, longer life-time and better prediction of burst pressure. Furthermore, the study showed that the prediction of first ply failure is more important than burst pressure knowledge of pressure vessels because it gives an initial prediction of vessel failure before the final failure occurrence. This in turn, may prevent the catastrophic damage of vessel.

Research Paper

Analyzing kindergarten's Interior Spaces for Enhancing Children's Creativity Erbil City as a Case Study

Rawaz A. Shareef; Husein A. Husein

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175884

The promotion and activation of creativity in children is extremely valuable due to their age growth. All types of environments, such as geographical, social, physical, and cultural environments, have a huge impact on children's development. Many studies have discussed the role of the environment in general in the creativity and development of children. However, the effect of the physical environment specifically seems to be disregarded. Nowadays children spend a lot of their time in kindergarten, thus the physical environment of kindergarten affects the children's development and creativity. It is noticed that at the kindergartens of Erbil city, the majority of the factors that contribute to creativity have been disregarded. The kindergartens are more of an academic institution than a place where children can be entertained or encouraged to be creative. In this study, qualitative and quantitative methodologies are applied to analyze the interior spaces of kindergartens in Erbil city. This paper seeks to create a content environment that encourages children to improve their abilities and potential skills. The found results prove that the physical environment factors are effective and significant in increasing children's creativity in kindergartens.

The Effect of CKD and RAP on the Mechanical Properties of Subgrade Soils

salman saeed; Ahmed H. Abdulkareem; Duraid M. Abd

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 98-107
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.175885

The construction of pavement layers on subgrade soil with good characteristics decreases the thickness of these layers, which in turn lowers the cost of building and maintaining roadways. However, it is impossible to avoid constructing pavements on unsuitable subgrade due to a number of limitations. Using conventional additives like lime and cement to improve subgrade properties results in additional costs. As a result, utilizing by-products (cement kiln dust and reclaimed asphalt pavement) in this field has benefits for the environment, economy, and technology. Large amounts of cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product material, are produced in Portland cement factories. On the other hand, large amounts of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) are accumulated as a result of the rehabilitation of old roads. This paper discusses using CKD and RAP to improve the characteristics of poor subgrade layers by conducting a series of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests on samples of natural soil and soil stabilized with different percentages of CKD and RAP with different curing times to investigate their impacts on soil properties. The curing was carried out by wrapping the stabilized samples with several layers of nylon and then placing them in plastic bags at room temperature. The compaction results illustrated that the addition of CKD increases OMC and decreases MDD, in contrast to RAP, which decreases OMC and increases MDD. The addition of CKD and RAP led to a significant and unexpected increase in the CBR values. The results show that the soaked and unsoaked CBR values improve from 3.4% and 12.1% for natural soil to 220.1% and 211%, respectively, after adding 20% CKD and curing the samples for 28 days. Also, the addition of 25% RAP to soil-20% CKD blend increased the soaked and unsoaked CBR values to 251% and 215%, respectively. All the additions resulted in a significant reduction in swelling.