Issue 2

Research Paper

The Evaluation of Living spaces and Service parts in The Dwell-ing Units in single-family Housing Projects in Erbil city

Mand Ibrahim Aziz; Siham Musheer Kareem

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176352

Housing is one of the main concerns raising critical problems in the Kurdistan Region. Due to the fast growth of the urban population through the last period, the Kurdistan-Investment Board was ongoing in construction of effective amount of housing estates by investment companies. Due to the rapid increase in population, many housing estate projects neglected specific family requirements, with low commitment to housing standards, quality of dwellings, and the resident's lifestyles. This study investigates living space and services parts of dwellings in those estates, finding out the factors that direct residential satisfaction supported by fixing correlations among determinants of overall satisfaction.
The adopted methodology consists of evaluation based on two steps, the first was by a technical assessment using checklist comparing spaces with Iraqi standards, while the second part was through survey of resident's satisfaction. Field data collection had consisted of a questionnaire list and data collection performed for five housing projects (10 types of dwelling units covered by eighty-three samples) selected in Erbil city. Then the questionnaire results were analyzed using the SPSS program using correlations, regression, and descriptive statistics. Low commitment to Iraqi Standards was obvious in most cases. Results also showed that dwellers were satisfied with their dwelling units in cases despite differences with Iraqi urban housing standards. For instance, in two bedrooms dwellings, areas of services were below the standard by 21% while the resident's satisfaction in this group varied between neutral and satisfied. It had been found a clear correlation between indicators of dwellings units’ spaces. The regression has shown that the indicators of the kitchen location's size and shape highly affected the householder's satisfaction. The descriptive statistics have shown the satisfaction level mostly been neutral in all projects. Finally, the study suggests some recommendations regarding dwelling units in addition to the need to amend the Iraqi standards of housing.

Optimizing Sentiment Big Data Classification Using Multilayer Perceptron

Khalid Shaker

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 14-21
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176353

Internet-based platforms such as social media have a great deal of big data that is available in the shape of text, audio, video, and image. Sentiment Analysis (SA) of this big data has become a field of computational studies. Therefore, SA is necessary in texts in the form of messages or posts to determine whether a sentiment is negative or positive. SA is also crucial for the development of opinion mining systems. SA combines techniques of Natural Language Processing (NLP) with data mining approaches for developing inelegant systems. Therefore, an approach that can classify sentiments into two classes, namely, positive sentiment and negative sentiment is proposed. A Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier has been used in this document classification system. The present research aims to provide an effective approach to improving the accuracy of SA systems. The proposed approach is applied to and tested on two datasets, namely, a Twitter dataset and a movie review dataset; the accuracies achieved reach 85% and 99% respectively.

Studying the Factors effect on Separation of Two Solid Equivalent Particle According to Density and Determination the best Separation Point

Suha Mahdi Salih

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 22-35
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176354

Density separation has many applications in metallurgy, medicine, clinical chemistry, microbiology, and agriculture. This study investigates the factors' effects on density separation in order to benefit from this technique. The separation quality depends on the velocity of particles because as the velocity of particles increases, the mean separation needs less time so it gives better separation, so the parameter effect on the value of the velocity is studied. These parameters were volume fractions, the diameter of the sphere, the density of the sphere, and the viscosity of the fluid. Each parameter was studied by calculating the velocity of particles using Stokes' law. The velocity of particles is directly proportional to some properties of particles. These properties are the diameter and density of a particle because as these properties increase, the mass of particles increases, which leads to increased kinetic energy, which increases turbulence. Turblance's velocity is increasing. The volume fraction of spheres is another property of particles' effects on density separation. This parameter is inversely proportional to velocity because a collision between particles increases, which decreases turbulence. Fluid properties also have an impact on density separation. This property is viscosity. Its effect deteriorates the efficiency of separation because viscosity is the resistance of the fluid to flow that serves to displace the particle, which leads to a reduction in the velocity of the particle. The maximum separation happens when the sink and float particles separate at the same time. That happens when the sink and float particles have the same velocity in the opposite direction. That means when the sum of velocities equals zero. In this research, the maximum separation was derived when the sum of velocities equaled zero.

Design and Implementing of a Buck Dc-To-Dc Converter into the DC Motor's Speed Controller in Matlab/Simulink

Settar keream

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 36-41
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176355

This paper presents a method for controlling the speed of a DC motor that is energized individually by utilizing a DC-DC Buck converter that is fed from a DC source. It can be easily controlled with the help of different types of DC-DC converters. This project was introduced a study and analyses of the buck DC to DC converter with PID controller cascaded with DC motors which is simulated in MATLAB. The required speed of the DC motor can then be obtained by giving a variable regulated voltage to the armature of the DC motor. A controller of the proportional-integral type is utilized so that the user can adjust both the amount of current flowing through the DC motor as well as the rate at which it rotates. These controllers allow for a quick control response. In addition to that, this paper presents a Simulink model for a DC motor that was created with Matlab Simulink. The purpose behind the development of the current and speed controller was to achieve stable and high-speed control of the DC motor. The final step is the display of the simulation results for the proposed system, which show that they are consistent with the expected results. This paper shown the DC motors was able to reach the necessary speed within a few attempts; however, as the load rose, the settling time increased as well.

Review Paper

A Review in Applications of Control Engineering Based on Genetic Algorithm

yasameen kamil najm

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 42-48
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176356

The most popular evolutionary search techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs). Even though they are frequently used to solve control engineering problems, they are currently not a common tool in the control engineer's toolbox. This may be due in part to the fact that there are currently few general overviews of the employment of GAs for control engineering problems, and that they are often reported on at computer science conferences rather than conferences for control engineers.
This review study is intended to assist researchers and practitioners in identifying prospective research issues, potential solutions, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each technique. This study gives a brief overview of contemporary a Genetic Algorithm (GA) in control systems. Additionally, offers a number of control techniques used with the GA that have undergone extensive research. The conclusion of this study listed in a table to show the effectiveness of GA in various control technique and which field didn’t used till the time of preparing this review.

Methodologies Employed to Cool Photovoltaic Modules for Enhancing Efficiency: A Review

Wisam M. Saliha; Ahmed Khudhair Abbas; Harith M. Ali

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 49-62
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176357

Photovoltaic cells are one of the renewable energy sources that have been employed to produce electrical energy from solar radiation falling on them, but not all incident radiate will produce electrical energy, part of those radiate cause the panel temperature to rise, reducing its efficiency and its operational life, unless an attempt is made to employ one of the traditional cooling methods or innovating other methods to cooling it to reduce this effect, which it represented in the active and passive cooling method. In fact, it is difficult to compare the active method with the passive method, as each method has its Advantages and disadvantages that may suit one region without another. But in general, there are basic factors through which at least a comparison between the two methods can be made. Relatively the passive method is less expensive, in addition to no need for additional parts such as pumps and controllers, there is no energy consumption because it does not require power. But it is less effective and efficient than the active method, while the active method has the ability to disperse the heat higher than the passive method. However, it necessitates the use of electricity and is frequently costlier than the passive strategy. In this review, the most common active and passive cases were reviewed, and the pros and cons of each case are summarized in discussion due to the difficulty to list them. The review recommends that future studies should focus on active water cooling and heat-sink, both of which are viable cooling strategies.

Research Paper

Hoff's Investigation of The Sandwich Panel with Honeycomb Core

Muheeb Yassen; Khaldoon Brethee

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176358

Recently, the use of sandwich panels has become increasingly important. This is due to its good mechanical properties and high strength-to-weight ratio. It is used in many fields, especially in aviation, construction and aerospace. It is necessary to know the behavior of the materials used, especially the free vibrations, to know the effect of external factors on the sandwich panels. The honeycomb core sandwich panel was studied. A model for analysis and modeling is proposed. A previous model was chosen for analysis and comparison. Hoff theory was applied to convert honeycomb sandwich panel into equivalent sandwich panel to facilitate the solution and save time. The limits were considered fixed on the one hand and moving on the other hand, and the ANSYS program was used to analyze and extract the results, and the results were compared and were promising and accurate, which proves to us the validity and accuracy of the proposed theoretical results

Effect of Natural Fibers from Palm Fronds on The Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Alhareth Mouthanna

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176359

Scientists have recently started looking for new ecologically friendly and sustainable materials. Construction materials are among the numerous widely employed materials, and it is normally acknowledged that they have an apparent detrimental influence on the environment. Thus, the contribution of this paper is to describe the palm frond natural fibers' effect on concrete's mechanical characteristics. Since concrete is a brittle material, the goal of this research is to increase the tensile strength of concrete by using organic fibers (palm frond fibers), a waste product. In order to determine the ideal percentage of fibers, the following percentages were tested: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% by volume of concrete. On dry density, compressive strength, and tensile strength, the impacts of fibers were investigated. The density of concrete decreased with increasing fiber ratios. The compressive strength slightly decreased, while the splitting strength significantly improved. According to the results, the best amount of palm frond fibers that can be add to concrete is 0.75% by volume.

Performance Study of Broadband and a Dual-Band Antenna- Array of Telecommunication Systems

al smadi Takialddin

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 74-83
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176360

 The antenna is a Modified Broadband Butterfly Antenna (MBBA).  The technical parameters of such systems are heavily influenced by the qualities of the antenna feed devices. The aperture theory of antennas uses the representation of the radiation field of the antenna as a superposition of the fields of elementary sources, characterized by their type and amplitude-phase spatial distribution. The radiation field of an antenna of finite dimensions is a superposition of inhomogeneous spherical waves emitted by the antenna elements.
This paper is primarily the study process, Radiation models were calculated using the model of the cavity plates, Simple Green model, and the strict commercial Electromagnetic Simulator. The modified active rectangular patches with the Gann diode were combined into arrays of E and H plane. Calculated and measured results for these two active arrays the beam scanning, the possibilities have been demonstrated for both arrays. The results of an electrodynamics numerical simulation were obtained. Broadband and multiband radio systems have already found widespread practical applications by utilizing basic antenna parameters and characteristics.

Assessment Performance at Al- Thawra Signalized Intersection in Babil City

Ali Salah Mahdi; Nahla Yassub Ahmad

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 84-90
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176361

Hilla cities center of province Babil is one of the most important cities in Iraq 100 km (62 mi) south of Baghdad .its relate  the Governorate Baghdad with Governorates south                                            Al-Thawra signalized intersection is one of the most important intersections   in AL-Hilla city Being a major crossing point to the governorates of holy Karbala and Baghdad.The excessive traffic volumes, during the peak periods (at morning and evening), of vehicles that entering the intersection increase traffic density, reduce travel speed, increase travel time, and increase the delay values This paper aims to assess the traffic performance of Al-thawra signalized intersection in Babil city that is consistent with the existing conditions and intersection's geometric properties. For all approaches, video recording has been used to collect traffic volume data. These data are taken out of videos from Babil police cameras (department of communications and information systems)..The intersection was evaluated and analyzed using the SYNCHRO 10.0 software, and the best option was selected. The outcome of the evaluation process indicated that the intersection is operated at the level of service (LOS F) and with a control delay of 162.5 recommending a variety of strategies, ranging from signal optimization to geometric enhancements. The suggestion of widening the pavement in the north-south direction was found to be the best solution.  resulting in a decrease in vehicle delays from 162.2 seconds to 95.4 seconds  and the level of service remains constant  (LOS F)  considered an acceptable and cost-effective solution to the intersection's problems.

Effect of Duration and Intensity of Burning on Columns Exposure to Cyclic Fire

nuha shakir; Ammar Yasir Ali

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 91-98
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176362

The term "fire safety engineering" refers to the process of applying scientific and engineering principles to the effects of fire in order to lessen the number of deaths and property damage caused by fire. This is done by determining the risks that are involved and providing the most effective method for implementing measures of prevention or protection. The paper showing experimental results of ordinary concrete columns made of  "NSC" subjected to axial load and cyclic firing is presented in this study. the bearing capacity of the column decreased. all samples have been loading an eccentric load with  "e = 75 mm" ,"e / h = 0.50," and the ratio Celsius (30%Pu) continuously through the burning period. The first column(C1) was the sample control with out exposure cyclic fire  , and the second column was subjected to four burning cycles over the course of four days, with a duration specific of "45 minutes" for each cycle, at a temperature of "400 °C", and the third column was subjected to four burning cycles over the course of four days, with a duration longer amount of "75 minutes" for each cycle, at a temperature of "400 °C, ", the four column was subjected to four burning cycles over the course of an  of four days, with a duration specific of "45 minutes" for each cycle, at a temperature of "600 °C " , the bearing capacity of the column decreased. that to be amount losses (C2,C3 and C4) comparison to (C1) equile ( 27.20 , 29.12, and 36.40)% respectively.  the fracture load of the experimental columns varied by decreasing with these variables. Additionally, the depth and spread of the cracks increased with the increase in burning duration and target temperature.

Study the Effect of Cutting Parameters of Abrasive Water Jet Process on Aluminum Alloy 5083

mostafa adel; Safaa Kadhim Ghazi; Alaa Hassan Shabeeb

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 99-105
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176363

The most common type of abrasive water jet is known as a valuable and advanced non-traditional machining operation due to its no heat-affected zone, best in removing material, very environmentally friendly, and no mechanical stresses. This paper gives an idea about Abrasive water jets in terms of applications, advantages, and limitations. Also illustrates the influence of the parameters on the material removal rate. The effect of feed rate, pressure, and stand-off distance were worked, at three levels for material removal rate (MRR) to machining Aluminium alloy type-5083 by using a tool consisting of a mixture of 70% water and 30% abrasives of red garnet. The distance of the standoff has the most significant impact on the rate of material removal, which is subsequently followed by the feed rate and finally the pressure. The findings demonstrated that the Taguchi model is capable of making accurate predictions regarding the machining reactions, with a rate of material removal of 93.3%.

Prediction of Surface Quality in Electrical Discharge Machining Process for 7024 AL Alloy Using Artificial Neural Network Model

safaa kadhim; Khalida Kadhim Mansor; Mohanad Qusay Abbood

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 106-113
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176364

In this article, an experimental study of the single-pass hybrid (PV/T) collector is conducted in the climatic conditions of Fallujah city, where the experimental results are compared with a previous research to validate the results. The effect of changing the angle of inclination of the hybrid collector (PV/T) and its effect on the electrical power in the range (20°-50°) is studied. The optimum angle of the collector is found to be 30°, which gives a maximum electrical power of 58.8 W at average solar radiation of 734.35 W/m2. In another experimental study with different air flow rates ranged from 0.04 kg/s to 0163 kg/s, where it is found that the maximum electrical power of 57.66 W at an air flow rate of 0.135 kg/s, while the maximum thermal efficiency reaches 33.53% at an air flow of 0.163 kg/s at average solar radiation of 786 W/m2.

Characterizations of Hybrid Composites of Linen /Glass Fibers for Automotive and Transportation Applications

M.F. M. Alkbir; Suhad D. Salman; Z. Lemanc; Fatihhi Januddi

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 114-121
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176365

Recently, the sustainability issue has become crucial to operation, which motivates researchers to search for naturally generated, sustainable materials, especially in automotive applications outside of reduced prices and enhanced performance. Glass-linen/Polyvinyl Butyral hybrid composites' mechanical characteristics were examined in relation to the effect of linen fiber loading. The composite and hybrid composite samples of linen/glass fiber reinforced PVB film were created using a hot press with various layering patterns. The results were high impact values with increased both tensile and flexural strength values. Compared to other hybrid composites, the mechanical behaviors of the H1 (Glass / Linen) hybrid have a greater tensile strength measuring 401.30 MPa, while, H2 (Glass / Linen/ Glass) hybrids are found to have the highest flexural strength, measuring 160.80 MPa. An optical and scanning electron microscope morphological analysis on linen hybrid composites revealed good results. This indicated decreased rates of delamination between the fibers and matrix layers. The loading of the fibers was shown to have varying effects on the composite's mechanical behaviors.  The linen/glass composites also demonstrated strong interfacial adhesion, which enabled the PVB-phenolic resin to penetrate the fiber bundles and produce a matrix with the good interlocking of the fibers

The effect of Corroded Longitudinal Steel Bars on Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Tasneem Salah; Yousif A. Mansoor; Mahmoud Khashaa Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 122-132
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176366

This study aims to examine the relationship between the corrosion rate of longitudinal tensile steel bars and the maximum flexural strength of reinforced concrete RC beams. The study's methodology is designed to show the structural behavior of corroded and non-corroded RC beams, such as ultimate load, deflection, stiffness, crack patterns, and failure mode. Three rectangular beams were cast with dimensions (150× 200 ×1200) mm, and all specimens have the same amount of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement and the same concrete strength. The major parameter is the theoretical mass loss level due to corrosion (0, 10, 15) %. Electrochemical technique was used to accelerate the corrosion in the longitudinal tensile bars. All RC beams were tested under four-point monotonic loading. The test results confirm that the cracking load in corroded beams decreased by 25% comparative to the non- corroded beam. The increase of the percent of corrosion experimental mass loss by 8.25 and 14.15 % decreased the ultimate load by about 14 % and 27%, respectively. This reduction coincided with the decrease in deflection values in mid-span for the ultimate load, which decreased by 53.9% and 46.3%. However, the flexural stiffness was reduced by 13.4 and 15.6% for corroded beams with mass loss (8.25 and 14.15), respectively, compared to the control beam (non-corroded RC beam).

Review Paper

Review of modern applications of solar cells in communication systems

Najat Shyaa Mohammed; Raheek I. Ibrahim

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 133-146
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2022.176367

Designing an integrated communications system with efficient features is important to researchers and designers. This paper deals with a review of the most important technologies and applications that combine solar cells and communication systems such as Li-Fi technology and its principle of operation, which is a wireless system in which the optical signal is used as a carrier signal as an alternative to the traditional radio frequencies used in Wi-Fi networks, where Li-Fi relies on LED to transmit data, and at high speeds that exceed Wi-Fi technology. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) technology where the satellite is placed in a geostationary orbit in the equatorial plane. As well as the application of photovoltaic solar cells in the SOLPLANT planar antenna, and the replacement of the radiating element of the antenna with a solar cell. The solar cell can transmit and receive electromagnetic signals as well as generate direct current and can be used as antennas either as a single solar cell or group cells and has wide applications in wireless, mobile, Bluetooth and satellite systems. The solar cell has also been applied in Micro strip antenna called Solan , where the solar cell antenna can be considered as a platform for many communication applications and can also be adopted as a radio frequency transmitter and receiver. As well as the design of many antennas integrated with solar cells and compatible with the 5G communication system , in addition to the presence of many applications that combined smart phones and solar cells. This study showed that these technologies and applications provided clean, safe, high-efficiency, high-speed, data-transferring communication systems with low cost.