Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences (AJES) is very sensitive to research misconduct and uses all means available to prevent publishing miscounted research. Though there is no standard definition of research misconduct, the Council of Editors defines research misconduct broadly in two categories of action and conducts. AJES uses this definition of misconduct in its dealing with the issue and follows strictly the COPE follow chart in dealing with research misconduct. In addition, for each component of the research misconduct, AJES has many assurance policies as follows:

•    Falsification and Fabrication of data

•    Piracy and Plagiarism

 Falsification and Fabrication of Data

Fabrication is defined as making up data without actually collecting or synthesizing scientific data. Falsification is defined as the manipulation of research material in order to reach a favorable result. Fabrication and falsification could happen at any stage of research (in the field) up to the publication of a manuscript where misuse of citation can happen (referencing a citation when the citation does not support the argument). AJES tries to identify any kind of fabrication or falsification in all levels of manuscript processing, from initial screening to comprehensive evaluation of a revised manuscript and even after a manuscript has been published. Reporting any fabrication and falsification is an ethical duty of our authors, co-authors, reviewers, editors, and readers. In any event of falsification or fabrication, AJES keeps its right to retract or withdraw the fabricated or falsified article. AJES strictly follows the COPE follow the chart in dealing with fabrication and falsification.


Plagiarism is defined as the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. Another category of plagiarism is self-plagiarism when the author published his own idea, data, and text in different journals when no need for such duplication exists. AJES uses all means to detect plagiarism. As a matter of quality assurance, a similarity of more than 20% in the text of a manuscript will be returned to the author to remove the similarities and reduce the chance of plagiarism. AJES strictly follows the COPE follow the chart in dealing with plagiarized articles.