Volume 11, Issue 1, Spring 2020

Research Paper

Transmitting and Receiving Ultrasound Wave Based on Laser Light

Ahmed H. Mahmood; Jassim M. Najim; Wesam M. Jasim

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171275

Our project was divided into two distinct sections, circuit transmitting and receiving ultrasoundWave Based on Laser Light. A Wien Bridge and a Triangle Wave Oscillators used to obtain a sineand a triangular wave, respectively. A comparator circuit which produces Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) that has the same frequency for triangle wave. The PWM was used to drive laserdiode that produced laser light through by MOSFET transistor and received this light by receivingcircuit which consists of a photodiode with resistor as a voltage divider, amplifier circuit to amplifythe signal and filter to get any desired frequency. The main objective of this project primarilywas to realize a transmission-reception system to transfer ultrasound Frequency via Laser withouta guiding medium, using modulation with little quality loss.

Preparation and Application of Natural and Low Cost Palm Fibers as an Effective Drag Reducing Agent for Flow Improvement in Iraqi Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheek I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 6-11
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171277

Flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high energy consumption for fluid pumping. Flow can be enhanced using either viscosity reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction (DR) is considered as a most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little amounts from drag reducing agents. The present work focuses on preparation and application of a new natural and low cost material derived from palm fiber (PF) that has been tested as a drag reducing agent (DRA) for crude oil flow enhancement. This objective has been achieved through designing and constructing of an experimental rig consisting of: a crude oil pipe, oil pump, pressure sensors, solenoid valve and programmable logic control. The additive material (PF) is prepared with different diameters (75µm, 125µm, 140µm) and tested with different concentrations as: 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L for reducing the drag inside the oil pipe. The experimental results showed that the fiber with 125µm diameter and 100ppm is the best where the percentage of drag reduction reached 43%. Furthermore, the results of this work proved that PF is an efficient and low cost DRA that can be applied successfully in crude oil pipelines as well as its contribution in the waste management.

Mechanical Properties of Welded Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI420) Subject to Different Heat Treatment

J. Jamal; H. Ali; S. Hareer

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171279

The aim of this article is to investigate the properties for joints of welded martensitic stainless steel (MSS) by ER 309 L filler wire, using tungsten arc welding (Tig). The regions of the base and welded materials were investigated by means of SEM, EDS, OP and HV were conducted to calculate the properties of the welded specimens. The influence of heat and cryogenic treatments also investigated, The best results from microstructure side occurrence epitaxial grains growth which was observed along the interface of weld-metal region, the maximum hardness was (414 HV) in conventional heat treated samples that tempered at 200°C, precipitation of small carbides were observed that this is responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of the material. Hardness at the HAZ region in state of DCT in all weldments was reduced as compared to hardness of HAZ region of CHT. The microhardness was at the highest value in the fusion zone

Kinematic Workspace Modelling of Two Links Robotic Manipulator

Dler Salih Hasanc; Nazhad Ahmad Husseinb; Sara SerwerYouns

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 19-24
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171281

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to establish a kinematic model for different manipulators, whose can be simulate the move in a two-dimensional workspace.The model is applied and implemented to four robot arm manipulators witha different DOF.The first step of modelling a robot is establishing its mathematical model parameters. It requires assigning proper length and angle for each link and creation rotational matrics. Simulation based on Matlabsoftware was implemented for finding their workspace

Develop QFD and AHP Models for Liquid Gas Valve for Product Developmen

Saad R. Serheed; Kadhum A. Abed

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 25-32
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171283

This new methodology utilizes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) with Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) together for improving product planning stage, hence, the product development, because this stage precedes the manufacturing stage and is regarded as an important stage in the product development. The proposed methodology consists of two models; namely: (1) Curent QFD Model. (2) Current AHP Model. It was applied practically to demonstrate the models' applicability and suitability, and develop liquid Gas Cylinder Valve produced at Al-Ikhaa General Company (IGC) for Mechanical Industries. "Thus it was possible to find out the critical and important specifications for improving product planning which should be considered in product development". These specifications have high ranking and Scaled Value Technical Ratings (SVTR) of over (50%). SVTR have values as follows: (1) (1.0000) for Pad (H1), then (2) (0.9270) for piston (H4), (3) (0.9195) for gasket (H12), (4) (0.8236) for safety valve (H6), (5) (0.8156) for sealing 1 (H5), (6) (0.6935) for sealing 2 (H9), (7) (0.5441) for installing the regulator with valve (H10) and (8) (0.5220) for spring2 (H7). When applying AHP method, various results were obtained. Based on the final score of Al-Ikhaa Company, where the highest defects value was (45%) was reported in the production processes. Also, values of maintenance dismantling 23%, Product assemblage 12% and maintenance assemblage 9% of the Product values.

Analysis of seepage through Al-Wand Dam by using SEEP/W ModelAnalysis of seepage through Al-Wand Dam by using SEEP/W Model

Mahmood Gazey Jassama; Sinan Salah Abdulrazzaqb

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171284

In geotechnical engineering, considered the seepage of water that occur through the soil medium is one of the important problems that must be accurately studied; therefor, knowledge of influencing factors on the value of seepage for the soil is a necessary when designing an earth dam. In this study seepage through Al-Wand dam was analyze by using SEEP/W model. It is a sub- program of Geo- Studio where it used to determine amount of seepage through the body of the dam and study the effect of the change of thickness of core and effect of construction without filter in amount of leakage. The results were that the quantity of leakage was small effected when reducing the thickness of core and when construct the Al-Wand dam without filter at different level of water in upstream.

Effect of Adding Degassing (Ar-N2) on Hardness and Microstructure of Recycling Aluminum Cans

Mazin N. Ali

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 38-42
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171285

In this work the effect of degassing on hardness and microstructure of aluminum recycled cans using aluminum beverage cans scrap from different locations in Baghdad wastes had been studied. Aluminum cans were shredded and ground into small pieces. It was processed through a gas fired to eliminate the coated layer (paint or lacquer on the metal). Generally the scrap is divided into two groups before charging to the furnace, one without adding degassing and the other degased with (Ar-N2). When temperature exceed 690C° molten aluminum was pour into two molds, after cooling. The two ingots were expose to porosity test, hardness, and microstructure. It was found from recycled cans ingot behave like short freezing range alloys. The main form of shrinkage porosity is localized external sink, appeared at the heat centers or at last region to be solidify. This had been verified clearly by microstructure of many regions of the ingot without adding a degasser. Either defect or decrease in hardness was clearly seen in the ingot without degassing addition. In addition to oxides, a number of additional compounds could be considered inclusions (intermetallic phase particles) in cast structures. Where the main conclusion was to remove gases without using a degassing to ingot decadence on the first gas fire on the cans to remove all paint or lacquer on the metal, but this was not sufficient and properly we need to add degassing to ingots. Finally this was clearly shown from the results of the ingot with adding a degassing had 89 kg/mm2 HV rather than 61 kg/mm2 for ingot without degassing

The Ɵptimum Decisions in Improving Sustainable Road Network Infrastructure by Using ,GIS , Graph Theory and L-matrix

M. S. al-Shuqairy; Noor A. Rajab

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171286

Road network infrastructure is the key indicator of sustainable spatial development, as it affects the economy, environment, and society activities. These can be optimized through minimizing the time the vehicles take on the road, which in turn requires high connectivity and then high accessibility between the nodes of the road network. However, it is necessary to put a development strategy that helps the decision makers to produce relative high accessibility over the development time. In this paper, the vulnerabilities regarding the connectivity and spatial accessibility were pinpointed and analyzed, optimum priorities in sequent new linkages adding are made for developing a sustainable infrastructure with faster enhancement for the spatial accessibility. The results have become a tough guidance for decision makers, and can be adopted as a first step for legislating a strategy for sustainable transportation system


Ahmed Hammad Hussain; Ahmed Mohmmed Ahmed; Mohammed Taha Hammood; Aziz Ibraheem Abdulla

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 53-59
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171288

This research paper is an attempt to reuse plastic waste fibre resulting from plastic sections industry as an additive to concrete matrix. The relationship between fibre volume fraction and mechanical properties of concrete and re-inforced concrete tiles was investigated. Three volume fractions of fibre ( 0.5 % , 1 % and 1.5 % - by volume of concrete ) were used through the experi-mental program. Tests’ results proved a slight decrease in concrete compres-sive strength as plastic fibre was added compared with the reference mix. Flexural behaviour of concrete tiles was enhanced as adding fibres. Adding fibre to Concrete results in a negligible reduction in concrete density. Fibre with high volume fractions improved Splitting tensile strength compared to the reference mix.

Evaluating the Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Improvement of Economic Water Productivity for Winter Wheat

Zainab Abdulelah Al Sudani; Sabah Anwer Almasraf; Ali Hamid Abdullah

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 60-65
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2020.171289

Utilizing of subsurface water retention technology is a modern technique to retain and save the application water for sustainability of agricultural production through scheduling and management the irrigation processes. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the supplementary irrigation and rainfed water on improvement of economic water productivity for winter wheat. The experiment was conducted in open field, within Joeybeh Township, located in east of the Ramadi City, in Anbar Province, for the growing season 2018-2019. Two plots were used for comparison process, the first plot where membrane trough below the root depth was installed and supplementary irrigation system was conducted beside the rainfed water and according to scheduling the irrigation process as checkbook method. While in second plot, the membrane trough was installed and only rainfed water was depend on. Cultivated date of winter wheat was December, 20th, 2018, and the harvest date was May, 10th, 2019. The obtained result was showed that the crop yield and economic water productivity from the first plot and the second plot were equaled to 0.52 kg/m2 and 0.35 kg/m2, and 930 ID/m3 and 800 ID/m3, respectively. The increasing value of crop yield and economic water productivity in the first plot was more than that in the second plot by 49 % and 16 %, respectively. The benefits of applying supplementary irrigation system with installing the new techniques of retaining the applied water were sufficient in improvement the crop yield and accordingly improved value of the economic water productivity.

Integration Environmental Aspects onto Customer Requirement to Develop Green Quality Function Deployment

Maryam Khalid Abdul Wahid; Lamyaa Mohammad Dawood

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 66-78
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2023.176837

The extensive global competition between companies and the development of new industrial technologies have greatly contributed to the current competitive conditions Like industrial companies, customers demand high quality products, low prices and better performance. This fierce competition has led to concerns about improved product design. This development is based on GQFD. Model of this developed Water pump is employed by CAD solid model (version 7). In order to achieve competition and high quality and high performance in the Iraqi market. GQFD demonstrates the balance between product development and environmental protection. Used a water pump for a home air cooler as a case study. Data is collected and distributed using personal interview methods and questionnaire forms to indicate customer requirements. The data is then analyzed using Pareto chart and AHP to prioritize customer needs. These priorities are then placed in house of quality and matrix of relationships between customer requirements and technical characteristics is established. The product has been developed from electrical to mechanical, in addition to using accumulated, stored and recycled materials; it also saves 20% of energy, thereby combining energy reduction with the use of damaged materials and their re-entry into work. As a result, the cost of pump manufacturing will decrease

The Integration Between the Structural System and the Envelope System in Earthquake Resistance Design

Ali Nur eldeen Azeez; Ali Mohsen AL-Khafaji

Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-93
DOI: 10.37649/aengs.2023.176838

Earthquakes are one of the most serious natural disasters affecting the stability and the durability of buildings, threatening the life of its occupants. These buildings should be withstanding earthquakes by both architectural and structural engineers. The Integration between structural and envelope system is negatively affected due to; the lack of architectural knowledge in earthquake resistance, and the absence of cooperation between architectural and structural engineers in earthquake resistant design. In this research the lack in the nature of the integrative relationship between the structural and envelope system of earthquake-resistant buildings design is presented. Also, he relationship between these systems, their patterns, and levels in the building to resist earthquakes are highlighted. Where the concept of integration, patterns and levels are verified, using inductive methodology (descriptive, and analytical) through election, analyzing of two different case studies. major result show that the performance pattern is the most common type of three other integration patterns. Also the envelope ,structural system response achieves an equal degree of response as both of them are integrated with each other without revoking one the role of other or affecting the optimal seismic resistance of buildings, and conclusion are presented further.