About Journal

AJES is a high-quality scientific journal devoted to fields of Engineering(Civil,Mechanical,Electrical,Renewable Energy,Environment,Water Resources,Chemical and Aerodynamics). Two issues per year are published by college of Engineering University of Anbar. It was started in 2007 for publishing papers in two languages (Arabic ad English).According to instructions of publishing by AJES.   Scope of the Journal Anbar Journal of Engineering Science is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal consolidating research activities in all experimental and theoretical aspects of modern engineering...
Read More ...

Journal Information

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  ajes.uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Yousif Al Mashhadany

ISSN: 1997-9428

Performance of a double-pipe heat exchanger with different met-al foam arrangements

Thaer H. Farhan; Obaid T. Fadhil; Hamdi E. Ahmed

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 100-112

This paper contributes to the field of improving the performance of heat exchangers using metal foam (MF) full-filled and partially/periodically-filled within the gap between the two pipes. The effect of configuration and arrangement of copper MF (15PPI and porosity of 0.95) installed on the outer surface of the inner pipe of a counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger on the thermal and hydraulic performance was studied experimentally. The test section consisted of concentric two pipes; the inner pipe which was made of copper while the outer pipe was a Polyvinyl chlo-ride. Air was used as a working fluid in both hot and cold sides. A wide cold air flow rate range was covered from 3 to 36 m3/h which corresponds to Reynolds number (Re) range from 2811 to 31,335. The hot air flow rate was kept constant at 3m3/h. The temperature difference (ΔT) be-tween the inlet hot air and inlet cold air was adopted to be (20°C, 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C). The re-sults revealed that the higher Nusselt number (Nu) was at ΔT= 50°C and the thermal performance of the heat exchanger with the MF for all the arrangements was greater than the smooth heat exchanger. The highest and lowest friction factor was 1.033 and 0.0833 for the case 1 and 8, re-spectively, and the optimal performance evaluation criteria (PEC) was 1.62 for case 7 at Re = 2800. The Nu would be increased with a moderate increase in the friction factor by optimizing the arrangement of the MF. The two essential parameters that played an important role for in-creasing the PEC were the MF diameter and the MF arrangement along the axial length of the cold air stream.

Comprehensive review study for the effect of utilizing waste ma-terials on the thermal conductivity of concretes

Ahmed Abdullah Mohammed; Mohammed Akram Ahmed; H. K. Dawood

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 113-120

Since concrete is one of the most popularly utilized building mixtures in construction, a high demand of natural resources is significantly emerged. Therefore, a skyrocketed attention has been paid to create new opportunities for the use of recycle materials to develop a new construc-tion substance with more satisfactory properties. The use of waste products in concrete is not only economical, but it helps in solid waste management as well. Among various properties of concrete, thermal conductivity is a crucial factor that plays an important role in in building insu-lation by evaluating a material's capacity to transfer heat. This paper aims to review the potential application of waste materials in concrete as additive ingredients and investigate the effect of this waste material on thermal conductivity of concrete. The review of literature revealed that the application of most of the waste materials exhibited an obvious potential as thermal insulator. However, further investigated work is needed to highlight the advantages of utilizing waste mate-rials in concrete containing various type of waste materials

Variation of the heavy metals concentration in some wells and springs water between Haditha dam and the site of Al-Baghdadi dam

Kamal.B. A-Paruany

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 121-129

The study area is located between latitude 33° 51.9 -34° 19 and latitudes 42° 15.83 to 42° 40.3 in the northwest part of the Governorate of Anbar. The research focuses upon the analysis of Heavy Metal variation between the dam of Haditha and the dam of Al Baghdadi in (8) wells and (4) springs. Nine heavy metals, including Zn2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, B2+and As2+, were analyzed for the wells and springs samples in August 2019 and March 2020. Present study shows a spatial and temporal change in heavy metals, whereas all well samples did not exceed allowable limits suggested by WHO and IQS. A major source of High values of heavy metals in some water samples of springs may be due to the effects of Agriculture, Fertilizers, pesticides and fish lake. The results also show a variation in the depth and source of wells, reflected by different co-existing sources. In addition to some human activities, which raise the level of concentrations.

Experimental Study of Parabolic Trough Receiver with Perforated Twisted Tape Insert Using Fuzzy Model Analysis

S. M. Naif; S. A. Mutlag; W. H. Khalil; H. K. Dawooda

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 130-138

A solar water heating system has been fabricated and tested to analyze the thermal performance of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC) using twisted tape insert inside absorber tube with twisted ratio about TR=y/w=1.33. The performance of PTSC system was evaluated by using three main important indicators: water outlet temperature (Tout), useful energy and thermal efficiency (ηth) under the effect of mass flow rate (ṁ) ranges between 0.02 and 0.04 Kg/s with the corresponding of Reynolds number (Re) range (2000 to 4000). In a parallel, a fuzzy-logic model was proposed to predict the thermal efficiency (ηth) and Nusselt number (Nu) of PTSC depending on the experimental results. The fuzzy model consists of five input and two output parameters. The input parameters include: solar intensity (I), receiver temperature (Tr), water inlet temperature (Tin), water outlet temperature (Tout) and water mass flow ( ) while, the output include the thermal efficiency (ηth) and Nu. The final results indicate that, owing to the mixture of the swirling flow of the perforated twisted-tape insert, the perforated twist tape insert enhances the heat transfer characteristics and the thermal efficiency of the PTSC system. More specifically, the use of perforate twist tape inserts enhanced the thermal efficiency by 4% to 4.5% higher than smooth absorber tube. Also, the predicted values were found to be in close agreement with the experimental counterparts with accuracy of ~92 %. So, the suggested Fuzzy model system would have high validity and precision in forecasting the success of a PTSC system compared to that of the traditional model. Pace, versatility, and the use of expert knowledge for estimation relative to those of the traditional model are the advantages of this approach

Evaluation and treatment of waste water effect on groundwater quality (the University of Anbar area as a case study)

Mohammed Freeh Sahab

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 139-145

This research focuses on studying the impact of different sources of wastewater, such as do-mestic, industrial, agricultural, etc. upon groundwater. The swamp of contaminated water collec-tion within the Al-Anbar University area was taken as a case study for this research. This swamp has a pond that works as a collection basin for different sources of wastewater mainly domestic waste coming from leakage of contaminated water from the septic-tank of the residential com-plex of students. This contaminated water will leak over time within the folds of soil due to per-meability and the effect of land attraction and reach the levels of groundwater.The presence of polluted water near groundwater is an environmental hazard and harmful because this leakage water has different diseases and germs, which could pose a danger to human health. Different samples of these sources were taken from different places at different times and some physical, chemical, and biological tests were then conducted. Wastewaters characterization was also investigated in this study to make an assessment for water quality and find out a proper treatment method. Data obtained from this study show different levels of pollutants, which could highly affect groundwater quality. A proper and advanced treatment method was also proposed in this study, depending on the wastewater characterization results. The purpose of this research is wastewater treatment using the physical method with coagulation and Flocculation processes with local coagulants to reduce pollutants impact on groundwater.The results showed the addi-tion of alum at 35 mg/l increased the removal efficiency by 80.7% at the settling time of 60 min, and the addition of 35 mg/l of the lime increased the removal efficiency by 63.9% at the same settling time.It has been proven that the use of alum is more effective than lime for sedimenta-tion suspended matter. The optimum dosage and settling time are 20 mg/l and 60 min respec-tively.

Evaluation of transportation network in AL- Fallujah city

Khalid Hardan Mhana

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 146-156

The city of Fallujah suffers from bad design in their network and it still dominated by the same pattern of the road and street network system that was produced by the previous stages of the development of the city, which is awaiting the necessary and appropriate solutions, which calls for planning to modernize the road network and streets in it that can accommodate the reality of the city’s condition and the proposed expansions for its subsequent urban growth. The transportation network in Fallujah city was chosen as a case study, the network was divided into roads and intersections, the evaluation included two main roads and eleven sectoral roads, eleven arterial roads, and twenty-five intersections. The network was evaluated in three stages, the first stage was traffic flow and service level, the second stage was evaluating the network in terms of road and intersections marking, while the third stage concerned with evaluating the network in terms of sustainability. The HCS 2010 program was applied to evaluate the first stage, while the second and third stages were evaluated based on the field survey. The results of the first stage showed that most parts of the network in the northern zone suffer from traffic problems and have a low level of service, while most parts of the network in the southern zone have a high service level and enjoy high traffic flow. Most parts of the network were suffered from bad marking, which causes many problems for the users of this network. Related to sustainability, we note a lack of interest on the part of designers or decision-makers. It was concluded that traffic solutions should be economically feasible for some parts of the network, which would lead to improving the network’s performance at the level of the three stages.

The Engineering dimensions and its impact on the sustainability on the roads network in Ramadi city

Rana Salah Thabit; Thaer Sh. Mahmood; Hamid A. Awad

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 157-167

Transport is one of the most critical areas of urban life and an essential base for developing and developing societies. It is a crucial indicator of the progress and development of cities and their great benefits. It saves from the movement of people and goods and the prosperity of the economy-social, economic and environmental issues globally and what we are witnessing in recent times. However, despite the tremendous advancement in technology, it continues to face numerous challenges in developed and developing nations, including our own. The absorption of the irrigated volume and any defect in the gradient causes many problems such as congestion, delays, traffic jams and the accompanying psychological, economic, social and environmental effects, energy consumption, depletion of natural resources and lifestyle. So transportation has become a concern. And it became a topic of concern that imposes the need to think about the preparation and development of the transportation system towards sustainability based on meeting transportation needs. In light of the negative impacts of the sustainable planning engineering dimension on the urban road network in Ramadi and for the Iraqi cities, we have thus attempted to study the effect of this project, given the critical impact on sustainable development and the approach used by thinking people and scholars in their studies and documents in Agenda 2030. Through evaluating the data from the research region, which comprised 27 Ramadi neighbourhoods, and applying them to the statistical analysis software (SPSS), it discovers that the schematic engineering dimension indicator represented by the hierarchy has direct and decisive connection significance. The local road area index achieved the most substantial linear relationship, followed by the collective, secondary and major roads indicators. They reached a medium relationship to formulate a sustainable development system based on Ramadi and other Iraqi cities. A decision is making about sustainable urban engineering transportation. And take an approach with whatever is good for the state

Effect of Polymer SBR on Strength Reduction in Concrete Immersed in Drainage and Ground Water

Ghassan Subhi Jameel; Ahmed Tareq Noaman; Bevian Ismail Al-Hadithi; Abdulkader Ismail Al-Hadithi

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 168-176

Concrete structures suffer from the impact of many harmful attacking materials that affect theproperties of the main material in them, which is concrete. These structures are also, exposedto the negative impact of many hostile environments such as soils containing harmful salts andharmful acids. A number of precautions should be considered in order to protect the concreteused in such structures. Adding polymer to concrete components as a percentages weight ofcement is one of the methods for producing polymer-modified concrete, which has lowpermeability, better mechanical properties and is more resistant to the negative effects ofharmful environmental factors. The utilization of polymers could help in protecting structuresand enhancing concrete strength. In this study, concrete mixes were prepared with inclusion ofstyrene butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer at four percentages (0%, 5%, 7% and 10% by cementweight). Co-polymers of butidine with styrene (styrene-butadine rubber (SBR)), are a group oflarge-volume synthetic rubbers. High adhesion occurs between the polymer films that formand cement hydrates. This action gives improves the properties of concrete such as flexuraland compressive strength and gives also a higher durability. The investigation was extended toevaluate the compressive strength of the SBR concrete mixes immersed in three types ofwaters: tap, drainage and ground water, at three different ages. The results showed that SBRpolymer enhanced the compressive strength of concrete significantly. A comparison betweenreduction in strength of concretes immersed in these three types of waters was also presented.Moreover, the presence of SBR polymer led to reduced loss in strength of concrete specimensimmersed in drainage and ground water. A proposed model to determine the compressivestrength of concrete specimens immersed in drainage and ground waters was deduced. Thismodel could be a helpful tool for rapid and easy estimation of the strength of concretespecimens immersed in drainage and ground water at different contents of SBR polymer. Theresults showed the highest improve in compressive strength to be associated with 7% SBRmixes at the three tested ages. The increases in this strength at days 7, 28 and 56 with inclusionof 7% SBR polymer were 112.8%, 113.9% and 116%, respectively, compared to OPC mix.

Torsional Capacity of Composite Reinforced Concrete Beams with Stirrup Connectors

Dolfocar Ali Usamah Witwit; Nabeel Abdulrazzaq Jasim

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 177-192

New composite reinforced concrete beams, in which reinforced concrete component is connected to steel T-section, are proposed. The shear connection between the two components, the reinforced concrete and the T-section, is provided by the stirrups that are required for the reinforced concrete component to resist the applied shear. Experimental tests in addition to numerical analysis were conducted to determine the behaviour and strength of such beams under pure torsion. Full scale one conventional reinforced concrete beam, T1, and two composite reinforced concrete ones, T2 and T3, were tested. The degree of shear connection between the two components of beams T2 and T3 was changed by varying the number of stirrups which are used as shear connectors. The experimental results revealed approximately same torsional stiffness for the three beams at the uncracked concrete stage. The torsional strength of the composite reinforced concrete beams was greater than that of ordinary reinforced concrete one by 11% and 27% for beams T2 and T3, respectively. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted using program ABAQUS. To model the shear connection in composite reinforced concrete beam, the stirrups were connected to the web of the steel T-section by springs at the location of the stirrups. Good agreement is obtained between the results of the experimental tests and the finite element analysis. The ratios of experimental results to those of finite element analysis for torsional strength are approximately one. Under the pure torsion loading the degree of shear connection is found to have no effect on torsional capacity of beams.

Numerical Investigation of Hydraulic-Thermal Performance for a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Equipped with 45°-Helical Ribs

Ahmed K. Mashan; Waleed M. Abed; Mohammed A. Ahmed

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 193-202

In this paper, the hydraulic-thermal performance of a double-pipe heat exchanger equipped with 45°-helical ribs is numerically studied. The ribbed double-pipe heat exchanger is modelled using three heights (H = 0, 2.5, 3.75, 5 mm) of 45°-helical ribs. Two numbers (4-ribs and 8-ribs) of 45°-helical ribs are attached on the outer surface of the inner pipe of the counter-flow double-pipe heat exchanger and compared with a smooth double-pipe heat exchanger. Three-Dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a laminar forced annular flow is performed in order to study the characteristics of pressure drop and convective heat transfer. In addition, the influence of rib geometries and hydraulic flow behaviour on the thermal performance is system-atically considered in the evaluations. The annular cold flow is investigated with the range of Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000, with three heights of ribs at the same width (W = 2 mm) and inclined angles of (θ = 45°).The results illustrate that the average Nusselt number and pressure drop increase with an in-creasing number of ribs, the height of ribs and Reynold number, while the friction factor decreas-es with increasing Reynolds numbers. The percentage of averaged Nusselt number enhancement for three rib heights (H = 2.5, 3.75 and 5 mm) at 4-ribs is (34%, 65% and 71%), respectively, While for 8-ribs the enhancement percentage is (48%, 87% and 133%) as compared with the smooth double-pipe heat exchanger at Re = 100. The best performance evaluation criteria of (PEC) at (8-ribs, and H = 5 mm) is 2.8 at Re = 750. The attached 45-helical ribs in the annulus path can generate kind of secondary flows, which enhance the fluid mixing operation between the hot surface of the annular gap and the cold fluid in the mid of the annulus, which lead to a high-temperature distribution. Increasing the height of 45°-helical ribs lead to an increase in the sur-face area subjecting to convective heat transfer.

Rutting Performance of Asphalt Layers Mixtures with Inclusion RAP Materials

Abdalsattar M. Abdalhameed; Duraid M. Abd

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 203-210

sphalt is the most recycled materials around the world and the amount of RAP materials can be significantly increased with the application of good RAP management applications. In Iraq, the real inclusion of RAP materials in asphalt mixtures has not been applied yet in the field. It is therefore that there is a need to characterize the effect of inclusion RAP materials in asphalt mixtures with particular reference to permeant deformation/rutting resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the best layer of pavement structure; base, binder, and surface layers for inclusion (RAP) materials. In addition, highlight the best percentage that can be added from RAP to achieve positive results and better than that associated reference mixture in terms of rutting resistance. RAP materials collected from different sources Karbala and Fallujah, were adopted in this study at percentages of 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of the asphalt mixture. Two scenarios of incorporating RAP materials have been adopted. The first is considered that RAP as a black rock in which the effect of aged binder surrounding the aggregate of RAP is neglected while, the letter is not considered RAP as black rock and the influence of aged binder in RAP materials has been taken into consideration. Dora bitumen has adopted in the current study which is used in common in Iraq. It has been highlighted the best layer in which RAP can be incorporated is the base layer, with a percentage up to 40% that RAP without considering RAP black rocks regardless the sources of RAP.

Distracted Driving Using Mobile Phone

Atheer Muhammed Ali

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 211-221

Approximately one-quarter of all automobile collisions in the United States are thought to be caused by a distracted or inattentive driver. As more wireless communication, entertainment, and driver assistance technologies become available in vehicles, the number of distracted driving accidents is projected to rise. Driver distraction is a major concern in North America, Europe, and Japan when it comes to road safety. The importance of driver distraction as a road safety concern, on the other hand, has just lately been recognized. This study presents an overview of current studies on in-vehicle driver distraction, with an emphasis on mobile phone usage, as this technol-ogy has garnered the most attention in the literature on driver distraction. The impact of in-vehicle gadgets on driving performance is discussed in this review. The adaptive techniques driv-ers use to maintain acceptable driving performance when distracted are discussed, as well as the situations under which these adaptive tactics can fail and how driving performance is harmed when they do. Legislation prohibiting drivers from using their cellphones while driving has had minimal effect, presumably due to a lack of regulation and enforcement. As potential preventive measures to decrease accidents caused by distracted drivers, behavior modification programs, enhanced vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been created.

Modal Split Model Using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

Omaima A. Yousif; Adil N. Abed; Hamid A. Awad

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 222-228

Several modal split models have been created around the world to forecast which mode of transportation will be selected by the trip - maker from among a variety of available modes of transportation. This modeling is essential from a planning standpoint, as transportation systems typically receive significant investment. In this study, the main purpose was to develop a mode choice model using multiple linear regressions for Ramadi city in Iraq. The study area was divided into traffic analysis zones (TAZ) to facilitate data collection. The data was collected through a home interview of the trip makers in their home units through a questionnaire designed for this purpose. The result showed that the most influential factors on the mode choice for the general trips model using multiple linear regressions are car ownership, age, and trip cost. This model gave a good correlation coefficient of 0.829 meaning that the independent variables explain 82.9 of variance in the dependent variable (type of mode), which will help transport planners in developing policies and solutions for future

Torsional Behavior of Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams by CFRP Sheets: Parametric study

Mashael A. Alrawi; Mohammad N. Mahmood

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 229-244

This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to pure torsion. A verification procedure was performed on three specimens by finite element analysis using ANSYS software. The verification with the experimental work revealed a good agreement through the torque-rotation relationship, ultimate torque, rotation, and crack pattern. The studied parameters of strengthening by CFRP sheets included strengthening configurations and number of CFRP layers. The confinement configuration methods included full wrapping sheet around the beam, U-shaped sheet, ring strips spaced at either 65 or 130 mm, longitudinal strips at the top and bottom faces, U-shaped strips in addition to the number of layers variable. It was found that the performance of the beam for resisting a torsional force was improved by (33-49%) depending on the method of coating with CFRP sheets and the number of used layers. A change in the angle of twist, as well as the shape of the spread of cracks, was also noticed from the predicted results.

Artificial Neural Networks Modeling of Heat Transfer Characteris-tics in a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector using Nano-Fluids

T. A. Salih; H. K. Dawood; S. A. Mutlag

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 245-255

In the current article, an experimental investigation has been implemented of flow and heat transfer characteristics in a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) using both nano-fluids and artificial neural networks modeling. Water was used as a standard working fluid in order to compare with two different types of nano-fluid namely, nano-CuO /H2O and nano-TiO2/ H2O, both with a volume concentration of 0.02. The performance of the PTSC system was eval-uated using three main indicators: outlet water temperature, useful energy and thermal efficiency under the influence of mass flowrate ranging from 30 to 80 Lt/hr. In parallel, an artificial neural network (ANN) has been proposed to predict the thermal efficiency of PTSC depending on the experimental re-sults. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model consists of four inputs, one output parameter and two hidden layers, two neural network models (4-2-2-1) and (4-9-9-1) were built. The experimental results show that CuO/ H2O and TiO2/H2O have higher thermal performance than water. Overall, it was veri-fied that the maximum increase in thermal efficiency of TiO2/H2O and CuO/H2O compared to water was 7.12% and 19.2%, respectively. On the oth-er hand, the results of the model 4-9-9-1 of ANN provide a higher reliability and accuracy for predicting the Thermal efficiency than the model 4-2-2-1. The results revealed that the agreement in the thermal efficiency between the ANN analysis and the experimental results about of 91% and RMSE 3.951 for 4-9-9-1 and 86% and RMSE 5.278 for 4-2-21.

TAIL PLANE DESIGN FOR SATISFYING LONGITUDINAL HANDLING QUALITIES

Yahya A. Faraj; Farag M. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Ahmed; Mohammed A. Ahmed; Waleed M. Abid; Ahmed N. Uwayed; Ghalib R. Ibrahim; Khaldon F. Breithe; Khalel I. Aziz; Arz Y. R; Hamdi E. A. Zangana; Akram Shaker Mahmood; Arz Yahya Rzayeg; Ahmed T. Al; Ejbari; Khaleel I. Aziz; Mazin Y.A; Riyah N. K; Nidaa Ezzy; Khamis N. Sayle; Nidaa Ezzy

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

The Cooper-Harper rating of aircraft handling qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft. In the present work, the tail plane design for satisfying longitudinal handling qualities has been investigated with different tail design for two flight conditions based on the Shomber and Gertsen method. Tail plane design is considered as the tail/wing area ratio. Parameters most affecting on the aircraft stability derivative is the tail/wing area ratio. The longitudinal handling qualities criteria were introduced in the mathematical contributions of stability derivative. This design technique has been applied to the Paris Jet; MS 760 Morane-Sualnier aircraft. The results show that when the tail/wing area ratio increases the aircraft stability derivative increases, the damping ratio and the natural frequency increases and the aircraft stability is improved. Three regions of flight conditions had been presented which are satisfactory, acceptable and unacceptable. The optimum tail/wing area ratio satisfying the longitudinal handling qualities and stability is (0.025

Keywords

Longitudinal Handling
---
Stability
---
Tail Design

BEHAVIOR OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE CONTINUOUS BEAMS WITH PARTIAL INTERACTION

Khalel I. Aziz

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 51-68

In this study an attempt is made to develop a method of analysis dealing with a multi-layer composite continuous beam , for linear material and shear connector behavior in which the slip (horizontal displacement) and uplift force (vertical displacement) are taken into consideration. The cross-sectional area for the beam consists of three layers varying in thickness and shear stiffness. The analysis is based on a approach presented by Roberts[1], basically for two layer simply supported beam, under uniform and point loads , which takes into consideration horizontal and vertical displacement in interfaces. The analysis led to a set of eight differential equations containing derivatives of the fourth and third order. A program based on the present analysis is built using finite difference method using boundary conditions. A comparison between the present analytical solution and previous studies shows close agreement. Continuous composite beams are very important element in construction of high rise buildings , multi-story frames and bridges, due to great advantages that can be obtained by using this sort of structural elements, such as reducing the beam moments, suitable reduction in deflections. The model deals with continuous beam consisting from three layers as a cross-sectional area with inter-layer slip. The cross-sectional area consist of composite material including intermediate layer from concrete and an upper and lower material with high strength in tension and compression ( i.e. steel plates or steel beams )

Key Exchange Protocol Supporting Mobility and Multihoming

Abdul-Karim A-R. Kadhim; Sufyan T. Faraj; Mohammed A. Tawfiq

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-30

In this work, a new key exchange protocol for IP-based mobile networks is introduced. This protocol is called KEPSOM (Key Exchange Protocol Supporting Mobility and Multihoming). The goals of designing KEPSOM are to develop key exchange protocol proposal characterized by its secrecy, simplicity, efficiency, resistivity, and its ability to support mobility and multihoming. The protocol requires only two roundtrips. The design limits the private information revealed by the initiator. An old security association (SA) can be replaced with a new one by rekeying without the need of restarting the protocol with a new session. On the other hand, the changes in IP address due to mobility or multihoming need not to restart the protocol with a new SA session. The proposed protocol can also support key exchange in hybrid wireless network, in which the mobile node can operate in both Ad Hoc and Base Station-oriented wireless network environments using different transmission modes. KEPSOM has been analyzed and proven secure. Several tests have been done to measure and evaluate the performance of the protocol. In these tests, it is found that the required time for rekeying is about 27% of the total required time for exchanging the keys. And the required time to detect and update the change in IP address, which may occur due to mobility or multihoming, is less than 10% of the total required time to establish a new SA sessions.

An Experimental Study Of A Solar Water Heater Of Prismatic Right Triangular Cross-Section Area

Abdul Rahman M. Homadi; sabah T. Ahmed

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 94-111

An experimental study was done on a solar water heater which consists of two prisms of orthogonal triangle cross-section with a 210 liters capacity . The heater was easy to make and has a low cost when comparted with other types of solar water heaters that it usually the collector separate on the water store. The study included experimental investigations , the experimental investigation was done under the Iraqi environmental conditions at Baghdad for the period in summer and winter seasons in 2006 but the calculation for only two days 15/7/2006 and 6/12/2006 . The study included testing the heater with & without loading and it tested in 13/12/2006and14/12/2006. draining hot water from storage tank at different rates . The experimental result show the ability to get hot water at 46oC at December i.e. a temperature rise at 30oC with 16oC initial temperature .

Practical Investigation for Improving Concentrating Solar Power Stations Efficiency in Iraqi Weathers

Khalil Ibrahim Abaas; Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 76-87

Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Concentrated solar power (CSP) is a method of electric generation fueled by the heat of the sun, an endless source of clean, free energy. Commercially viable and quickly expanding, this type of solar technology requires strong, direct solar radiation and is primarily used as a large, centralized source of power for utilities.
This study has focused on the feasibility of improving concentrating solar power (CSP) plant efficiency, by manufacturing a diminished prototype. Three states were studied, coloring the central target with a selective black color, fixing a reflector with arc form behind the target, and using these two changes together. The results showed an improvement in the thermal storage varied form month to month. The maximum stored energy was gained at August with increments about 56.1%, 58.63%, 62.23 and 64.69% for ordinary target, black painting, using reflector alone and black target with reflector together, respectively compared with stored energy for March.

Key Exchange Protocol Supporting Mobility and Multihoming

Abdul-Karim A-R. Kadhim; Sufyan T. Faraj; Mohammed A. Tawfiq

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-30

In this work, a new key exchange protocol for IP-based mobile networks is introduced. This protocol is called KEPSOM (Key Exchange Protocol Supporting Mobility and Multihoming). The goals of designing KEPSOM are to develop key exchange protocol proposal characterized by its secrecy, simplicity, efficiency, resistivity, and its ability to support mobility and multihoming. The protocol requires only two roundtrips. The design limits the private information revealed by the initiator. An old security association (SA) can be replaced with a new one by rekeying without the need of restarting the protocol with a new session. On the other hand, the changes in IP address due to mobility or multihoming need not to restart the protocol with a new SA session. The proposed protocol can also support key exchange in hybrid wireless network, in which the mobile node can operate in both Ad Hoc and Base Station-oriented wireless network environments using different transmission modes. KEPSOM has been analyzed and proven secure. Several tests have been done to measure and evaluate the performance of the protocol. In these tests, it is found that the required time for rekeying is about 27% of the total required time for exchanging the keys. And the required time to detect and update the change in IP address, which may occur due to mobility or multihoming, is less than 10% of the total required time to establish a new SA sessions.

The Study of Temperature Effects On Activated Sludge Stability and it’s Dewaterability by using bioelectricity cell as a treatment unit.

Samaher Jasim Mohamed

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 295-310

%95.21 in (25 c°, 35 c°, 45 c°). In the anaerobic treatment SRF is reduction by percent %91.65, %97.25, %92.7 in (25 c°, 35 c°, 45 c°).
Percent reduction of dry solid (DS) concentration in the aerobic treatment is %7.61, %9.3 in (25c°, 35c°, 45c°) respectively. While in the aerobic treatment the percent reduced of DS was %75, %51, %16 respectively with (25c°, 35c°, 45c°).
The results showed the effect of aerobic and anaerobic treatments of activated sludge with three different temperatures (25c°, 35c°, 45c°), on the dewatering of sludge and its stability and the hydraulic detention time with using bioelectricity cell. The study outcomes revealed that the biological treatment is enhanced dewaterability of the activated sludge for aerobic and anaerobic treatment, in the aerobic treatment the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) is reduction by percent%95.7.

THE EFFECT OF NOISE STUDY AT CITY PLANNING FOR SPECIFYING THE USES OF LAND

Nidaa Ezzy

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 133-142

The research is interested in the noise sources that occur inside the cities. That the human being are subjected inside there homes, the way it maybe transfer and the way to treat this problem and control it by achieving a good planning to the city before the construction starts.
The architecture role appears when planning the cities by defining the best way to use the land for and find the practical balance between the noise pollution the land suffer from. And also to indicate the locations of the housing area. in addition to locate the external and internal noise sources and put successful solutions to treat and control it by planning and design.
A housing area at AL-SAQLAWIA a city near AL-ANBAR TECHNICAL INSTITUT was studied by distributing a (100) questionnaires for the people living at this area to recognize their opinion about the noise sources inside and outside their homes and how far it affect their life to find a table with conclusion about this object which contain a comparison between the house location near the street and far a way the street and transfer the results into graphs to explain the relation between the noise sources and the percentage ratio for the opinions of the living people.

BEHAVIOR OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE CONTINUOUS BEAMS WITH PARTIAL INTERACTION

Khalel I. Aziz

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 51-68

In this study an attempt is made to develop a method of analysis dealing with a multi-layer composite continuous beam , for linear material and shear connector behavior in which the slip (horizontal displacement) and uplift force (vertical displacement) are taken into consideration. The cross-sectional area for the beam consists of three layers varying in thickness and shear stiffness. The analysis is based on a approach presented by Roberts[1], basically for two layer simply supported beam, under uniform and point loads , which takes into consideration horizontal and vertical displacement in interfaces. The analysis led to a set of eight differential equations containing derivatives of the fourth and third order. A program based on the present analysis is built using finite difference method using boundary conditions. A comparison between the present analytical solution and previous studies shows close agreement. Continuous composite beams are very important element in construction of high rise buildings , multi-story frames and bridges, due to great advantages that can be obtained by using this sort of structural elements, such as reducing the beam moments, suitable reduction in deflections. The model deals with continuous beam consisting from three layers as a cross-sectional area with inter-layer slip. The cross-sectional area consist of composite material including intermediate layer from concrete and an upper and lower material with high strength in tension and compression ( i.e. steel plates or steel beams )

Thermal Performance of a Heat Pipe with Sintered Powder Metal Wick Using Ethanol and Water as Working Fluids

Ahmed A.M.Saleh; Obaid T.Fadhil

Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, 2011, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 62-71

An experimental study is carried out to compare the thermal performance of a sintered powder metal wick heat pipe. Pure water and absolute ethanol are used as two different working fluids. The pipe is made of copper with 300 mm length, 14 mm diameter, and 1.0 mm wall thickness. The wick is made of copper powder. All the experiments are accomplished and the heat pipe is at the horizontal position (è=0o). The heat flux changed within the range (2.8 -13.13) kW/m2, while all other conditions remained constant. The results show that the thermal performance of the heat pipe is better when water is the working fluid, where the operating temperature and the thermal resistance of the heat pipe are lower when the water is the working fluid.

Keyword Cloud